GOOD GOVERNANCE AND ETHICS MANAGEMENT
First Semester 2013-2014
Instructor: Dr Zeger van der Wal, Associate Professor
Office: 02-15, LKS
Consultation Hours: Mondays, 13:00-18.00, and by appointment
Class Hours: Thursdays, 14:00-17.00
Venue: MM SR3-4
Pedagogical and learning support: Justyn David Olby, MEd, firstname.lastname@example.org
Required book (to purchase at NUS bookstore or online, approximately S$50):
Lawton, A., J. Rayner, and K. Lasthuizen (2012). Ethics and Management in the Public Sector. London: Routledge. 196 pp.
Ethics and good governance are essential to the continuing development of the public sector, in developing as well advanced nations. This module will help you to develop reasoned and authentic ethical positions on public management and public policy issues and essential competencies for ethical leadership. You will approach this through first exploring the underlying concepts and philosophical underpinnings of ethical governance and the threats facing it. Then, you will be exposed to recent insights and best practices in ethics management and policies to combat corruption and unethical conduct. Throughout the module you will develop your skills and ethical standpoints by putting your learning into practice with assignments and practical exercises, many of which involve actual cases and dilemma trainings used in professional programs all over the world.
The themes of the course are reflected in the following seven questions:
1. What is ethical, who decides, and why?
2. Is there such a thing as the public interest, who determines, and how do we measure?
3. Is it possible to achieve good governance or should we strive for ‘good enough governance’, as many crucial public values seem contradictory or even conflicting?
4. How to create and nurture ethical organizations, what are the most effective instruments?
5. What works better and when: enforcing compliance, building trust, or promoting values?
6. Do best practices work across borders or are all ethics particular or even relative?
7. How do you progress from being an ethical person to being an ethical leader?
Teaching philosophy and format
This module uses a problem-based approach. Each week’s class will be built around a central problem or case. We will use different class formats, including in-class group exercises, peer assessment, group presentations, and case discussions, (concise) lectures and wrap ups by the instructor, and discussions on the required readings.
We will use a wide variety of problems and cases to enhance your understanding of moral dimensions of issues and how to make sense of them: daily news, popular media, movies, arts, and history. In addition, we will use complex management and decision-making cases developed by the major public policy schools and business schools. Such cases have a primary protagonist, usually a senior manager who operates in a complex political and organizational environment. This manager is often faced with a decision-forcing situation. One question that should always guide you when reading a case is the following: What would I do and why?
You are expected to read the materials in advance of the class session and be prepared to discuss both the cases AND the required readings (and how they relate) in class.
Working in groups
From the start of this module, you will form groups of 3-5 students (depending on the number of participants) that will stay together for the duration of this module. As a team, you will engage in weekly case discussions, and present your position on the issue at hand each week. Preparing for class as a group is recommended as this will improve class dynamics.
Core learning objectives
You will understand:
Classical ethical theories (virtue ethics, deontology, teleology) and related central concepts (morals, norms, values, virtues, integrity).
How different contexts of good governance and ethics managements shape the approaches needed.
You will know:
The (often conflicting and contradictory) central principles of good governance and ethics management.
The context of the field of public values, good governance, ethics managements and its applications.
Key emerging issues related to good governance and corruption in the Asia Pacific region.
Key analytic and interpretive strategies used to make sense of ethical issues.
You will be able to:
Use the widely recognized 7-steps approach to ethical decision-making.
Make sense of the ethical dimensions of public policy and management issues using key analytic and interpretive strategies.
Employ structured ethical reasoning when faced with a real-life ethical dilemma.
Develop an authentic moral position towards a problem or dilemma with moral dimensions
1. Participation in class discussions (30%). You will be individually assessed in terms of your contribution to the discussions on the cases, problems and readings, group exercises, and overall class dynamics. Because this module takes a student-centered approach to learning, class participation is a major component of your final grade.
Study the cases and readings before coming to class, formulate questions and position yourself towards the issues that are raised. We will actively involve you in discussions and in-class exercises. If you are not in class, by definition, you cannot participate. We will record and evaluate class presence and participation. Please notify the instructor by e-mail when you are not able to attend class and provide a reason for your absence. Bringing your nameplate to class is conducive to interaction. We will approach you outside of class hours if problems emerge or we notice obstacles to participating in class. Please feel free to approach us pro-actively as well.
Each week, you are supposed to spend no more than 7 hours on the readings and case/problem preparation combined. On average, suggested and required readings excluding cases will not exceed 60 pages a week. We will post questions on IVLE on Monday each week to assist you in preparing for class discussions. Use the assigned readings to better analyze the case.
2. Individual written statement and peer-review (15%). Imagine you are a senior policy advisor in your country’s central government. You will write and upload to our module’s Facebook page a 2-page memo to your political principal in which you a) formulate a position on the ranking and evaluation of your country in terms of (good) governance and b) advise on whether or not to comply with the good governance indicators of international (donor) institutions, and why. The due date is Thursday 12 September at 2PM during NUS e-learning week. That week, we will have no physical lectures at the school. Instead, our discussion will take place on our Facebook page. All of us, instructors and students, will respond to each other’s letters and provide constructive and respectful critique.
3. Code of Conduct (15%). You will write an individual code of conduct of (maximum) 2000 words. The due date is Wednesday 7 October 2013 at 5PM on IVLE. The code of conduct is for the staff of an imaginary institute for higher education (e.g., a public policy school), and contains three parts (approximately 1 page or 600-700 words each):
1. Core values statement
2. Core values translated into behavioral norms
3. Sanctions for violating these values and norms
You will receive marks and feedback to this assignment within 15 working days after submission.
4. Final Essay (40%). You will write a 4000-word individual final essay in which you apply the theories and approaches discussed in class to a moral issue or dilemma of your choosing. The issue of dilemma has to be related to governance and/or public policy. The conclusion of your essay is an authentic and well-argued position towards the issue: what is the right thing to do here and why? Cite adequate sources and literature throughout the essay. 4
About the instructor
Zeger van der Wal was, before he joined the LKYSPP, Assistant Professor at the Department of Governance Studies at the VU University Amsterdam, The Netherlands, from 2008 to 2012. From 2003 to 2007, he was a senior researcher and PhD candidate at that same institution. In 2011 he was a summer resident at the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University, USA. He previously held positions as a visiting scholar at the Crawford School, Australia National University (ANU), Canberra, Australia, in 2009, and at the School of Public Affairs, American University, Washington DC, USA, in 2007.
Before he became an academic Van der Wal worked as a policy advisor and project manager for the Municipality of Amsterdam and a taskforce agency in the field of healthcare of the Provincial Government of Southern Holland, between 2001 and 2003.
His areas of expertise include Comparative Public and Private Management and Ethics, Elite Behavior, Public Values, and Motivation in Public Management. He has lectured and consulted internationally, and has taught a variety of courses to undergraduate and graduate students as well as professionals. His work has taken him to Australia, Belgium, China, Hong Kong, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, the UK, and the USA.
Van der Wal has (co)authored about 60 publications in the areas of public and private management, good governance, public values, organizational ethics, public service motivation (PSM) and public professionalism. His work appeared in leading academic journals as well as professional journals, books and book chapters, research reports, and newspapers and magazines.
Top-tier journals which have accepted his work for publication include Public Administration Review, Public Administration, Public Management Review, Administration & Society, American Review of Public Administration, Journal of Business Ethics, International Journal of Public Administration, Public Organization Review, Public Administration Quarterly, and Public Integrity. His books include Value Solidity. Differences and Similarities between the Organizational Values of Government and Business (2008), Integrity of Local Government (2010, co-authored with Van den Heuvel, Huberts, and Steenbergen), and Organizational Ethics across Sectors (2013).
His main publications have been translated into Chinese and Russian.
Van der Wal received his Master’s in Political Science from the University of Amsterdam (UvA), and his PhD in Public Administration (cum laude, with honors) from the VU University.
In 2008 he was awarded the National Postdoc Award from the Netherlands Institute of Government (NIG) for the international comparative project ‘Elite Ethics’.
His most recent project ‘Rule of Morality vs. Rule of Law?’ compares value preferences and conceptions of good civil service between civil servants in China and in the Netherlands.
More information about the instructor can be found on www.zegervanderwal.com 5
PART I: MAKING SENSE OF ETHICS
Week 1: Thursday 15 August (shopping week)
A Decision-making Approach to Ethical Dilemmas: An introductory exercise
When do you know a particular issue has ethical dimensions? How to recognize such dimensions? How to make sense of them and agree on a position or solution?
No readings in advance
The Holiday Dilemma
The 7-steps model
Week 2: Thursday 22 August
Understanding and Applying Classical Theories of Ethics
Kaptein, M. and J. Wempe (2002). The Balanced Company. A Theory of Corporate Integrity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 2. 49 pages.
Lawton, A., J. Rayner, and K. Lasthuizen (2012). Ethics and Management in the Public Sector. London: Routlegde. Chapters 1 and 2. 30 pages.
Friendship and truthfulness: Mutually exclusive virtues?
Part II: THE PUBLIC INTEREST: WHO DECIDES?
Week 3: Thursday 29 August
The Most Contested Concept of Them All
Lawton, A., J. Rayner, and K. Lasthuizen (2012). Ethics and Management in the Public Sector. London: Routledge. Chapter 3. 19 pages.
Bozeman, B. (2007). Public Values and Public Interest. Counterbalancing Economic Individualism. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. Chapters 5 and 6. 30 pages
Individual vs. public interests I 6
Week 4: Thursday 5 September
Putting the Public Interest into Action: A Public Value Mapping Exercise
Bozeman, B. (2007). Public Values and Public Interest. Counterbalancing Economic Individualism. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. Chapters 8 and 9. 43 pages.
M.H. Moore (2013). Recognizing Public Value. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Appendix: A Public Value Scorecard for Public Managers. 3 pages.
Individual vs. public interests II
Part III: GOOD GOVERNANCE: APPEALING OR ANNOYING?
Week 5: Thursday 12 September (e-learning week)
Good Governance across the Globe: A Case of ‘Good Enough Governance’?
Grindle, M.S. (2010). Good Governance: The Inflation of an Idea. CID Working paper 202, Harvard Kennedy School of Government Working Paper Series.
Van Doeveren, V. (2011) Rethinking Good Governance: Identifying Common Principles. Public
Integrity 13 (4): 301-318.
Making the rankers happy? On bias and unfairness in deciding which countries have good governance (Facebook assignment)
Week 6: Thursday 19 September
Good Governance in Public Policy: Managing Conflicting Public Values
Thacher, D. and R. Rein (2004). Managing value conflict in public policy. Governance 17 (4): 457-486.
Stewart, J. (2006). Value conflict and policy change. Review of Policy Research 23 (1): 183-195.
Managing conflicting public values such as balancing the budget, sustainability, and transparency: macro and micro level
--------------------------------------------------Recess week------------------------------------------- 7
Part IV: ETHICS MANAGEMENT
Week 7: Thursday 3 October
The Dark Side: Corruption and Integrity Violations
Svensson, J. (2005). Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19: 19-42.
Huberts, L.W.J.C. et al. (forthcoming, 2014). Integrity of Governance. Palgrave-Macmillan. Chapters 6 and 7. 44 pages.
Granite City Building Inspectors (Electronic Hallway case)
Week 8: Thursday 10 October
Managing Organizations of Integrity: Instruments, Approaches, and Policies
Lawton, A., J. Rayner, and K. Lasthuizen (2012). Ethics and Management in the Public Sector. London: Routledge. Chapters 6 and 7. 39 pages.
Huberts, L.W.J.C. & F.E. Six. (2012). Local Integrity Systems. Towards a Framework for Comparative Analysis and Assessment. Public Integrity 14 (2): 151-172.
Huberts, L.W.J.C. et al. (forthcoming, 2014). Integrity of Governance. Palgrave-Macmillan. Chapter 8. 23 pages.
Student self-selection of issue/case related to integrity management and integrity policies
Week 9: Thursday 17 October
Absolutism, Particularism, and Relativism: Ethics Management across Borders
Christie, P. M. J., Kwon, I. G., Stoeberl, P. A., and Baumhart, R. (2003). A cross-cultural comparison of ethical attitudes of business managers: India, Korea and the United States. Journal of Business Ethics 46: 263-287.
De Vries, M. (2002). Can you Afford Honesty? Administration and Society 34 (3): 309-334.
Lawton, A., J. Rayner, and K. Lasthuizen (2012). Ethics and Management in the Public Sector. London: Routledge. Chapter 5. 23 pages.
Jextra Neighborhood Stores (Harvard Business School Case) 8
Week 10: Thursday 24 October
Ethics in an Era of ‘Sector Blurring’: The Good, the Bad, and the Businesslike?
Van der Wal, Z. (2013). Organizational Ethics Across Sectors. Comparing Values and Value Dilemmas between Government and Business Organizations. Saarbrücken: LAP-Publishing. Chapter 1. 15 pages.
Adams, G. and D.L. Balfour (2012). Towards Restoring Integrity in Praetorian Times. The Value of ‘Putting Cruelty First’. Public Integrity 14 (4): 325-339.
Ellington, S. (2011). The Rise of Battlefield Private Contractors. An Analysis of Military Policy. Public Integrity 13 (2): 131-148.
Blackwater and privatization of the US military in Iraq and Afghanistan
Part V: ETHICAL LEADERSHIP AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS
Week 11: Thursday 31 October
How to become an Ethical Leader: Handling Complex Dilemmas
Treviño, L.K., Hartman, L.P. and Brown, M.E. (2000). Moral person and moral manager: How executives develop a reputation for ethical leadership. California Management Review 42 (4): 128-42.
Lawton, A., J. Rayner, & K.M. Lasthuizen (2012). Ethics and Management in the Public Sector. London: Routledge. Chapter 9. 20 pages.
The Flirt Dilemma
Week 12: Thursday 7 November
The Responsible Professional: Who do you serve?
Cooper, T.L. (2012). The Responsible Administrator. An Approach to Ethics for the Administrative Role. 6th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Chapters 4, 5, and 10.
De Graaf, G. (2010). The Loyalties of Top Public Administrators. JPART 21 (2): 285-306.
Professional values, organizational values, your boss, and your country’s interests: The case of corporate tax avoidance 9
Week 13: Thursday 14 November
The end of the Beginning: Where do you stand?
Module wrap-up and preparation for final essay by means of individual student presentations