REGIONAL INTEGRATION - THE CASES OF ASEAN AND THE EU
2017/2018, Semester 2
Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (Lee Kuan Yew School Of Public Policy)
Modular Credits: 4
This course addresses regional integration through the ASEAN and the EU in a comparative manner, including historical origins, basic structures, decision-making processes and main policy domains, both internal and external. The course also examines bi-regional relations between the EU and ASEAN as well as future challenges for the two regions and regionalism overall.
Regional integration - the cases of ASEAN and the EU
Name of Instructor: Dr. Kostas Glinos
Class Schedule: Friday, 9.00 a.m. – 12.00 nn
Venue: MM SR2-1
Academic Year 2017/18, Semester 2
Preferred Contact Information (Email and/or Phone):
; tel: 66015764
This course addresses the ASEAN and European integration processes side-to-side, including historical origins, basic structures, decision-making processes and main policy domains. The course also examines bi-regional relations between the EU and ASEAN as well as open questions on the future of regionalism and future challenges for the two regions.
The course is designed for the future policy and decision-maker, not for the academic. This means that although elements of and references to regional integration theory will be provided, the course will not focus on these. It will rather focus on understanding how ASEAN and the EU work and what difference their policies make, from foreign and security policy to trade, the digital revolution or the environment.
The objective of the course is to provide an understanding of what drives regionalism and regional integration as well as working knowledge on the governance, institutions and policies of what are considered to be the most successful regional organisations worldwide – ASEAN and the EU.
Students will acquire:
An understanding of the origins and drivers of regional integration in a globalisation context
Knowledge of ASEAN and the EU as international organisations, including of their institutions, governance and operation
The ability to conceptualise the articulation of public policy between the national and regional levels, and policy opportunities and limitations due to regional integration
Critical judgement of the strengths and weaknesses of the two blocks of countries, as well as an appreciation of the challenges ahead
Overall, the course will improve the ability of students to design national, regional or corporate policy in an international context.
Teaching will rely on short presentations on selected topics followed by discussion guided by the instructor. The presentations will be made by the instructor, guest lecturers, and the students. There will be flexibility for adapting the exact topics according to the students' needs and interests.
The course will invite a significant number of guest lectures (10 or more) by senior public officials, industry representatives and academics who have hands-on experience with ASEAN and the EU.
Students could buy John Pinder and Simon Usherwood's book (The EU: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press, 2013) because it will be frequently used and it is short (170 pages). Of course, it will also be available in the library.
Most other required or recommended readings will be available electronically at IVE. Some of the books are available in the library as e-books.
Active preparation and class participation are expected. This means that students should read the required material in advance and think critically of the topics so that they come in class with their own ideas, suggestions or questions. Sharing questions or suggesting topics for discussion in the week prior to a particular module would be appreciated.
Preparation and participation in class will count for 40% of the final grade.
There will also be about three assignments per student, in the form of short essays of 2-4 pages addressing policy questions or summarizing policy approaches, which will typically be based on the required or suggested reading but could also rely on sources suggested by the students. Each essay will be presented and discussed in class. Any student preferences in terms of topics will be taken into account for making the assignments.
The essays will count for 60% of the final grade (20% each if there are three). Each essay will be graded based on (a) the clarity and relevance of its content, (b) the quality of the written draft and (c) the quality of the presentation in class. The students are free to use slides for the class presentation but they are not required.
Plagiarism and Academic Honesty
The LKY School’s Academic Code of Conduct lists academic integrity as one of six important values. According to this Code, we have agreed to “make every effort to understand what counts as plagiarism and why this is wrong.”
Plagiarism is “the unattributed use of a source of information that is not considered common knowledge. In general, the following acts are considered plagiarism: (1) failing to cite quotations or borrowed ideas, (2) failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks, (3) failing to put summaries or paraphrases in your own words, and (4) submitting someone else’s work as your own.”
.) To avoid giving the impression that you are passing off other people’s work as your own, you will need to acknowledge conscientiously the sources of information, ideas, and arguments used in your paper. For this purpose, you can use any well accepted footnoting/referencing style.
Modules 1 to 4 discuss the drivers and politics of integration as well as the historical background to the birth and development of ASEAN and the European Union.
Week 1 – 19 January, 9:00am
The first module will introduce the course and will discuss the historical basis for regional integration in Europe and in Southeast Asia. Students will see how colonialism shaped modern Southeast Asia and the impact World Wars and economic integration in the United States had in setting the foundations for the European Union.
Amitav Acharya “Whose Ideas Matter? Agency and Power in Asian Regionalism” (2011), Ch. 4 (
Whose Ideas Matter?: Agency And Power In Asian Reg)
Michael Vatikiotis, Blood and Silk, (2017) Chs. 1 and 2
Andrew Glencross, The politics of European integration, Wiley- Blackwell, 2014, Ch. 1 pp. 13-29
The Economist, European disunion done right, 22 December 2012
Kishore Mahbubani “The ASEAN Miracle” (2017), Ch. 1
Acemoglu and Robinson, Why Nations Fail, Intro and Ch. 9
Benedict Anderson, “Imagined Communities” (Verso, 12th ed. 2006), pp. 1-36
Roy H. Ginberg "Demystifying the European Union: The Enduring Logic of Regional Integration" (2010), pp. 11-38
Week 2 – 26 January 9:00 am
The first part of the second module will complete the historical background with the early years of European integration, from Churchill's "United States of Europe" speech to the Treaty of Rome in 1957. The second part will provide a theoretical framework for regionalism in Asia and Europe, introducing different integration theories.
Required reading (54p)
Dinan, Desmond; Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, Palgrave, London (4th ed, 2010) Ch 1, pp. 9-26
Mark A. Pollack, “International Relations Theory and European Integration,” Journal of Common Market Studies, June 2001, Vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 221-244.
Amitav Acharya. (2011). Asia is Not One: Regionalism and the Idea of Asia. ISEAS Working Paper: Politics and Security Series, No.1. 2011
Fredrik Söderbaum. “Chapter 1: Theories of Regionalism,” in Mark Beeson and Richard Stubbs ed. “Routledge Handbook of Asian Regionalism.” Routledge: New York, 2012.
Week 3 – 2 February 9:00 am
The third module is about the birth of ASEAN and its development to date, from the Bangkok declaration through the ASEAN Free Trade Area and successive enlargements to the ASEAN Charter and the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community.
Required reading (42p)
Richard Stubbs, Sorin Mitrea. (2017) ASEAN At 50: the global political economy’s contribution to durability. Contemporary Politics 23:4, pages 388-407
Alice Ba “(Re)Negotiating East and Southeast Asia: Region, Regionalism, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations”, Chapter 2 – Why ASEAN? Why 1967?- pp. 42-65
Amitav Acharya, The making of South East Asia, ISEAS (2012) Ch. 2 & 3;
Modules 5 and 6 address the institutions, governance and functioning of EU and ASEAN.
Week 4 – 9 February 9:00 am
The fourth module discusses ASEAN institutions, the three ASEAN Communities and how ASEAN functions: who sets the agenda, how decisions are made, how policies are implemented. The ASEAN Summit, the Secretariat, the three Community Councils and bodies such as the ASEAN Regional Forum and the Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights will be presented and analysed.
Required reading (51p)
Rodolfo Severino “Southeast Asia in Search of an ASEAN Community", pp. 11-37
The ASEAN Charter ten years on, by Woon, Walter, Contemporary Southeast Asia, 08/2017, Volume 39, Issue 2
Rizal Sukma (2014). ASEAN Beyond 2015: The Imperatives for Further Institutional Change. Economics Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) Discussion Paper Series, January 2014, the fifth module
Week 5 – 23 February 9:00 am
The fifth module will discuss the development and rationale of European integration, from the Common Market to the European Union through successive enlargements and the Economic and Monetary Union. The "four freedoms" will be explained, together with the principle of subsidiarity and the exclusive vs. shared competencies of the EU. How the sovereign debt crisis of 2009 has influenced EU integration will be also debated.
John Pinder and Simon Underwood, The EU: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press (2013), Ch. 2
Luuk Van Middelaar, The Passage to Europe, Yale University Press (2013), pp. 9-33
Kalin Anev Janse, How the Financial Crisis made Europe stronger, World Economic Forum (2016)
Alan Milward, The European Rescue of the Nation State, Routledge, 2
ed. (2000), Ch. 1 pp. 1-17
Week 6 – 9 March 9:00 am
Module six explains how the EU is governed: what is the role of the main EU institutions (European Parliament, European Council, Council of Ministers, the Commission, the Court of Justice, the European External Action Service and the European Central Bank), who are the other policy actors, how they interact and delegate power, how legislation and other decisions are made and how implementation is controlled. The structure and logic of the EU budget will be also discussed.
Required reading (49p)
John Pinder and Simon Usherwood, The EU: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press (2013), Ch. 3 pp. 33-55
S. Vanhoonacker and K. Pomorska, The Institutional Framework, in Christopher Hill, M. Smith, and S. Vanhoonacker (eds), International Relations and the European Union, Oxford University Press (3
ed, 2017), Ch. 5 pp. 97-119
Multiannual Financial Framework of the European Union 2014-2020:
(1st page) and browse in
Dinan, Desmond; Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, Palgrave, London (4th ed, 2010) Part 2, pp. 171-279
Joseph Weiler, The Constitution of Europe, Cambridge University Press (1999), p. 188-218
Background on institutions of the EU: http://europa.eu/institutions/index_en.htm
Modules 7 to 9 discuss key ASEAN and EU policies in various sectors.
Week 7 – 10 March 10:00 am
This module will cover enlargement policy for ASEAN and the EU, the challenge of territorial cohesion, as well as trade, fiscal and monetary policies. Questions that will be debated include: What is the nature of the widening vs. deepening dilemma? Can a common market extend across countries with vastly different levels of economic development? What is ASEAN's and the EU's web of Free Trade Agreements? Which are the consequences of delegating monetary power to a supranational authority? How do different taxation regimes in Member States influence the operation of the single market?
John Pinder and Simon Usherwood, The EU: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press (2013) Ch. 4 & 9
Jayant Menon and Anna Cassandra Melendez. (2015) Realising an ASEAN Economic Community: Progress and Remaining Challenges. Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series, No.432, May 2015.
[On completing the EMU]
[On EU cohesion policy] http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/informat/basic/basic_2014_en.pdf
Hall Hill and Jayant Menon. (2014) ASEAN Commercial Policy: A Rare Case of Outward-Looking Regional Integration. ADB Working Paper Series on Regional Economic Integration, No. 144, November 2014.
[Paper on ASEAN enlargement]
Dinan, Desmond; Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, Palgrave, London 4
ed, 2010) Ch. 13, pp. 359-411
Quarterly report on the Euro area, Vol. 16, No. 2 (2017)
On EU industrial policy: http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-3185_en.htm
Week 8 – 16 March 9:00 am
This second module on ASEAN and EU policies will provide highlights of the foreign and security policy of the two blocs, the EU's development cooperation policy and the challenge of migration in relation to security, development and crises of identity or populist pressure; regional policies for science, technology and innovation in the EU and ASEAN; as well as policies for digital transformation and the "4th industrial revolution".
John Pinder and Simon Usherwood, The EU: A very short introduction, Oxford University Press (2013), Chs. 8 and 10
EU Global Strategy (2016): see
Smith, Karen E. (2017) A European Union global strategy for a changing world, International Politics, 54 (4). pp. 503-518; and Nathalie Tocci, The making of the EU Global Strategy, Contemporary Security Policy, Vol. 37, 2016 - Issue 3, pp. 461-472
[see Factsheets 1 & 6]
Caballero-Anthony, M. (2014) Understanding ASEAN’s Centrality: Base and Prospects in an Evolving Regional Architecture.
The Pacific Review
, 27 (4), 563-584.
Catherine Jones. (2015). Great Powers, ASEAN, and Security: Reason for Optimism? The Pacific Review, Vol. 28, No.2, pp. 259-280
Dinan, Desmond; Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, Palgrave, London (4th ed, 2010) pp. 523-526 and 545-562
Quang Minh Pham. (2015). ASEAN’s Indispensable Role in Regional Construction. Asia-Pacific Review, Vol. 22, No.2, pp. 82-101
Christopher Hill, Michael Smith, and Sophie Vanhoonacker (eds), International Relations and the European Union, Oxford University Press (3rd ed, 2017), Ch. 20 pp. 463-486
[On ASEAN Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief] Dylan Ming Hui Loh. (2016). ASEAN’s Norm Adherence and its Unintended Consequences in HADR and SAR Operations. The Pacific Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 549-572
On migrant workers:
On EU foreign policy see also site of KU Leuven http://eufp.eu
Week 9 – 23 March 9:00 am
The third and last module on ASEAN and EU policies will address regional policies aiming at preserving our commons, including those relating to health, the environment, climate change, marine and maritime resources, energy and transport.
Dinan, Desmond; Ever Closer Union: An Introduction to European Integration, Palgrave, London (4th ed, 2010), Ch. 15
[appropriate websites of ASEAN Secretariat and European Commission]
[Health in ASEAN] Jacob Kumaresan and Suvi Huikuri. (2015). Strengthening Regional Cooperation, Coordination, and Response to Health Concerns in the ASEAN Region: Status, Challenges, and Ways Forward. ERIA Discussion Paper Series, No. 60, September 2015.
[Social Policies] Vo Tri Thanh and Nguyen Anh Duong. (2016). Promoting Rural Development, Employment, and Inclusive Growth in ASEAN. ERIA Discussion Paper Series, No. 3, January 2016.
[Environment] Parudee Nguitragool. (2011). Negotiating the Haze Treaty: Rationality and Institutions in the Negotiations for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution (2002). Asian Survey, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 336-378.
[Energy] Geoffrey Hartman and Jane Nakano. (2017) The Energy Industry in Southeast Asia: Structures, Players, and Processes. Article in the CSIS-Pertamina Southeast Asia Security Roundtable Series. Centre of Strategic and International Studies.
Week 10 – 6 April 9:00 am
The 10th module focuses on ASEAN-EU relations and cooperation, from the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two blocs in 1977 to the commemoration of 40 years of relations in 2017. Differences in perception and approach that have sometimes resulted in tense relations, as well as future challenges and opportunities will be discussed. Trade flows and trade agreements, development aid, cooperation in security, aviation, S&T and the environment, as well as ASEM and ASEF will all be covered.
Required reading (56p)
D. Novotny and C. Portela (eds), EU-ASEAN relations in the 21st century (2012), Chs. 2 & 8
EU-ASEAN Action Plan (2018-2022):
Joint Statement on EU-ASEAN 40 years anniversary:
Yeo Lay Hwee. (2013) EU-ASEAN: In Search of a New Regional Paradigm? EU Centre in Singapore Working Paper No. 15, August 2013
On ASEM and ASEF:
Michael Plummer. (2006). ASEAN-EU Economic Relationship: Integration and Lessons for the ASEAN Economic Community. Journal of Asian Economies, Vol.16. pp.427-447
Richard Youngs. (2015). Keeping EU-Asian Engagement on Track. Carnegie Europe and EU Centre in Singapore. January 2015.
Blue Book 2017 EU-ASEAN, at https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters-homepage_en/30764/EU-ASEAN%20Blue%20Book%202017
The last bloc of three modules addresses future challenges for ASEAN and the EU and the outlook for regionalism in general.
Week 11 – 13 April 9:00 am
The last few years have been challenging for the EU as the continuing impact of the financial crisis combined with extreme migration pressures, multiple terrorist attacks, a rise in inequality and populism, and Brexit, to create a crisis of confidence in the EU. But in late 2017 the soul-searching has given some way to optimism and renewed momentum. In this module we will debate questions such as: is there a democratic deficit in the EU and how could it be corrected? How do issues of identity play in the European construction? Are the current policies for migration or taxation adequate given the changing circumstances? Should the EU expand further by taking in new Member States in the near future? What is the meaning of solidarity among Member States?
Required reading (~30p)
State of the Union speech by President Juncker, 2017 https://ec.europa.eu/commission/state-union-2017_en
New Pact for Europe, up to the end of the executive summary;
FT, 26 March 2016, Peter Francopan, The return of history
FT, 13 December 2017, Timothy Gordon Ash "The case for European conservativism rather than grand designs"
White paper on the future of Europe:
Week 12 – 14 April 10:00 am (tbc)
ASEAN has also faced major shifts in its surroundings in the last years, due in part to an increasingly imposing China and uncertainty in United States policy, whereas voicing of concerns about the effectiveness of the organisation in implementing decisions and the sustainability of current governance and budget arrangements is becoming more and more frequent. How can ASEAN be more effective in realising the ASEAN Economic Community? Is the budget sufficient to ensure monitoring of implementation and efficient operation of the secretariat? What are the limits of the "ASEAN Way" of non-interference? Should ASEAN involve more the civil society and the citizens in its decisions and how?
Required reading (54p)
Tham Siew Yean. (2015). The ASEAN Economic Community and Conflicting Domestic Interests: An Overview. Journal of Southeast Asian Economics, Vol. 32, No.2, pp.189-201.
Amitav Acharya. (2013). ASEAN 2030: Challenges of Building a Mature Political and Security Community. Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) Working Paper Series, No.441, October 2013.
Lee Jones. (2016). Explaining the Failure of the ASEAN Economic Community: The Primacy of Domestic Political Economy. The Pacific Review, Vol. 29, No.5, pp.647-670
Straits Times, 14 December 2017, Tan Hui Yee "How Asean can draw on its diversity to grow stronger"
FT, 8 July 2017, Victor Mallet "Southeastern Storms" [critique of Blood and Silk]
Kishore Mahbubani “The ASEAN Miracle” (2017), Chs. 5 and 6
Helen E. S. Nesadurai (2017)
ASEAN during the life of The Pacific Review: a balance sheet on regional governance and community building
. The Pacific Review 30:6, pages 938-951
World Bank and the Asian Development Bank. (2017). ASEAN 4.0: What Does the Fourth Industrial Revolution Mean for Regional Economic Integration. World Bank and ADB White Paper, November 2017.
Week 13 – 20 April 9:00 am
The last module of this course will discuss the challenges and future perspectives for regionalism in the 21
century, making the synthesis of lessons learnt from half a century of existence of ASEAN and the EU. In terms of external aspects, are regional organisations better equipped to meet global challenges? What is their role in global governance? How do they influence geopolitical stability? And internally, are common values necessary in forging a common identity? Or how are defined the limits of devolution of decision-making power from States to regional organisations? Other regional organisations like the African Union and CELAC will also be briefly discussed.
Pascaline Winand in D. Novotny and C. Portela (eds), EU-ASEAN relations in the 21st century (2012), Ch. 11
Peter Katzenstein, A World of Regions (Ithaca: Cornell University Press 2005), pp. 76-96
Amitav Acharya and Alistair Ian Johnston (eds.) Crafting Cooperation: Regional International Institutions in a Comparative Perspective (2007), Chapter 1 “Comparing regional Institutions: An Introduction”
Workload Components : A-B-C-D-E
A: no. of lecture hours per week
B: no. of tutorial hours per week
C: no. of lab hours per week
D: no. of hours for projects, assignments, fieldwork etc per week
E: no. of hours for preparatory work by a student per week