2015/2016, Semester 1
Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy (Lee Kuan Yew School Of Public Policy)
Modular Credits: 4
How should public organizations be managed and their functioning be improved? To help address these questions, this module introduces you to theories and concepts from various academic disciplines, ranging from public administration and business administration to political science and psychology. These do not offer panaceas for organizational problems; rather, they will help you to critically address everyday questions about how you can manage people in public organizations and broader and deeper questions about how states and governments should be run.
This module adopts a mixture of pedagogical techniques. Combined with lectures by the instructor and invited speakers, case studies are introduced to bridge theories and practices; you will be asked to imagine yourself in a public organization in real-world setting and tasked with addressing managerial and organizational challenges. Whether you have been employed in the private or public sector, you are encouraged to share your experiences with your classmates during class discussions and world café exercises. The classroom offers a unique environment in which professionals like you and your classmates can contribute comparative perspectives on relevant topics.
The objectives of this module are:
1. To enhance your understanding of the complex and unique organizational environments of the public sector and how they differ across countries.
2. To learn the managerial tools and strategies available to the manager and the conditions under which certain practices may be used to improve organizational effectiveness,
3. To provide moral and philosophical grounds on which to base critical assessments of how states and government institutions ought to be run and reformed.
Participation (20%). You will be assessed on your contribution to class discussions and on your presentations. Please read the assigned material and prepare before coming to class. If you are not in class, by definition you cannot participate.
Reflection Papers (40%). You are required to submit two reflection papers, based on the readings for two weeks; you can choose one week from Weeks 1 through 5, and the other from Weeks 6, 9, 10, and 11. Each paper should consist of two parts: (i) a synthesis of the readings (excluding textbook chapters) of a particular week of your choice, and (ii) your reflection on those readings. Each paper should be less than 3,000 words (including the title and references). One paper is due on 9 September and the other on 28 October. Please submit one hard copy to the lecturer’s mailbox and one soft copy to IVLE.
A Reform Proposal (40%). You will be asked to produce a reform proposal in which you identify a managerial or organizational problem in a particular agency, in a particular sector, or in public administration as a whole. Then you should assess several possible approaches to addressing that problem and recommend the best option, providing sound justifications.
o Problem Identification Memo (20%) and Presentation. This memo articulates a managerial or organizational problem in less than 2,000 words (including the title, appendix and references). Please submit one hard copy to the lecturer’s mailbox and one soft copy to IVLE by 29 September. You will be asked to share your memo with your classmates and present the problem in class, where the entire class will provide you with input through the world café exercises, in hopes of coming up with good remedies.
o Final Proposal (20%). You will expand your problem identification memo to include a policy analysis based on certain criteria) and a final policy recommendation. The final proposal should be less than 5,000 words (including the title, appendix and references). The proposal is due on 11 November. Please submit one hard copy to the lecturer’s mailbox and one soft copy to IVLE.
In sum, the important deadlines are:
09 September Topic Proposal
16 September First Reflection Paper
29 September Problem Identification Memo
28 October Second Reflection Paper
17 November Final Proposal
For all written assignments, use in-text citation styles with a reference list. Assignments submitted after the stated deadline will be penalized by one grade increment—namely, an erstwhile A assignment will be counted as a B+, a B+ assignment as a B, etc. There will be no extension of deadlines. Plagiarism is a serious offense. When you use ideas from other sources, you need to cite those sources. You must use quotation marks when you reproduce exact phrases or sentences; otherwise, be sure to paraphrase. To learn how to prevent plagiarism, visit http://www.cit.nus.edu.sg/plagiarism-prevention/.
• George, J. M., & Jones, G. R. (2012). Understanding and managing organizational behavior, International edition (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education. 【Available for purchase at the co-op; also on RBR at the Law Library】
TOPICS & READING ASSIGNMENTS
You will find all of the readings in IVLE E-Reserve, unless otherwise stated.
WEEK 1 (12 AUGUST): INTRODUCTION & UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF, AND THE ENVIRONMENTS SURROUNDING, PUBLIC ORGANIZATIONS
What is special about public organizations as opposed to private firms? What are the environments in which public organizations operate? How would managing a public organization in Country A differ from managing it in Country B?
1 Moore, M. (2000). Managing for value: Organizational strategy in for-profit, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 29, 183-204.
2 Knill, C. (1999). Explaining cross-national variance in administrative reform: Autonomous versus instrumental bureaucracies. Journal of Public Policy, 19(2), 113-139.
3 Mulgan, A. G. (2003). Japan’s “un-Westminster” system: Impediments to reform in a crisis economy. Government and Opposition, 38(1), 73–91.
WEEK 2 (19 AUGUST): A VARIETY OF GOVERNANCE MODELS I
What are the normative justifications for decentralization reforms? Besides decentralization, what constitutes New Public Management (NPM)? Do you agree with the NPM premise that a government should be run like a business?
1 Hood, C. (1991). A public management for all seasons? Public Administration, 69(Spring), 3-19.
2 Kane, J., & Patapan, H. (2006). In search of prudence: The hidden problem of managerial reform. Public Administration Review, 66(5), 711-24.
3 Oates, W. (1972). An economic approach to federalism. In Fiscal federalism (pp. 3-30). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
CASE: HIV/AIDS in Brazil: Delivering Prevention in a Decentralized Health System
WEEK 3 (26 AUGUST): A VARIETY OF GOVERNANCE MODELS II
How have the relationships between states and citizens evolved over time? When should citizens be invited to participate in government decision making and how should they participate? In your opinion, what is the optimal way to govern the state and conduct public administration?
1 Fung, A. (2006). Varieties of participation in complex governance. Public Administration Review, 66, 66-75.
2 Dietz, T., Ostrom, E., & Stern, P. (2003). The struggle to govern the commons. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 302(5652), 1907-1912.
3 Vigoda, E. (2002). From responsiveness to collaboration: Governance, citizens, and the next generation of public administration. Public Administration Review, 62(5), 528-540.
CASE: Rebuilding A Tsunami-Ravaged Community (Prepared by the instructor.)
WEEK 4 (2 SEPTEMBER): MOTIVATING PEOPLE I
People are motivated for different reasons. What are their motivational values? What are the implications of these values for human resource management? What does scientific management have to do with work motivation?
• Chapter 6 in George & Jones (2012)
1 Frederick, T. (1997). The principles of scientific management. New York: Dover Publications. 【Available for purchase at the co-op; also on RBR at the Law Library】
2 Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. In J. M. Shafritz and A. C. Hyde (Eds.), Public administration: Classic readings, international edition (pp. 105-112). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/ Thomson Learning, 2012.
3 Perry, J. L., & Wise, L. R. (1990). The motivational bases of public service. Public Administration Review, 50(3), 363-373.
CASE: Community Health Workers in Zambia: Incentive Design and Management
WEEK 5 (9 SEPTEMBER): MOTIVATING PEOPLE II
What are the techniques you can employ to motivate your employees to achieve organizational effectiveness? What are the rationales for using performance measures in the public sector? What are the pros and cons of performance appraisals?
• Chapter 7 in George & Jones (2012)
1 Behn, R. D. (2003). Why measure performance? Different purposes require different measures. Public Administration Review, 63(5), 586-606.
2 Romzek, B. S., & Dubnick, M. J. (1998). Accountability. In J. M. Shafritz (Ed.), International encyclopedia of public policy and administration (vol. 1: A-C) (pp. 6-11). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
3 Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Agency theory: An assessment and review. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 57-74.
Presentation by Associate Professor Liu Hern Choon Eugene, the NUS Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine.
WEEK 6 (16 SEPTEMBER): RESPONSIBILITY, ETHICS, AND CORRUPTION
Why do ethics matter, particularly for modern democratic governments? What does it mean to be an ethical and responsible public administrator? How would you, as a manager, ensure that employees are responsible and ethical?
1 Levitan, D. M. (1946). The responsibility of administrative officials in a democratic society. Political Science Quarterly, 61(4), 562-598.
2 Kernaghan, K. (2003). Integrating values into public service: The values statement as centerpiece. Public Administration Review, 63(6), 711-719.
3 O’Leary, R. (2010). Guerrilla employees: Should managers nurture, tolerate, or terminate them? Public Administration Review, 70(1), 8-19.
SPECIAL LECTURE: "Minimizing Corruption in Singapore: Lessons for other Asian Countries" by Professor Jon S.T. Quah. (Click
for his profile.)
Please read the following articles before the class.
• Quah, J. S. T. (2014). Curbing police corruption in Singapore: Lessons for other Asian countries. Asian Education and Development Studies, 3(3),186-222.
• Quah, J. S. T. (2015). Singapore's Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau: Four suggestions for enhancing its effectiveness. Asian Education and Development Studies, 4(1), 76-100.
• Quah, J. S. T. (2013). Curbing corruption in Asian countries: An impossible dream? ISEAS/ Emerald Publishing. 【On RBR at the Law Library】
• Quah, J. S. T. (2015). Hunting the corrupt “tigers” and “flies” in China: An evaluation of Xi Jinping’s anti-corruption campaign (November 2012 to March 2015). Maryland Series in Contemporary Asian Studies. Baltimore: Carey School of Law, University of Maryland.
WEEK 7 (30 SEPTEMBER): PROBLEM PRESENTATIONS & WORLD GOVERNANCE CAFÉ
Week 8 (7 OCTOBER): PROBLEM PRESENTATIONS & WORLD GOVERNANCE CAFÉ
WEEK 9 (14 OCTOBER): DECISION MAKING
Identify the similarities and differences among substantive, procedural and bounded rationalities. What are the implications of these different behavioral assumptions for approaches to decision making? How should managers and leaders make decisions in a given situation?
• Chapters 10, 11 & 15 in George & Jones (2012)
1 Lindblom, C. E. (1959). The science of “muddling through.” Public Administration Review, 19(2), 79-88.
2 Allison, G. T. (1969). Conceptual models and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The American Political Science Review, 63(3), 689-718.
3 Simon, H. (1986). Rationality in psychology and economics. The Journal of Business, 59(4), S209-S224.
CASE: Cuban Missile Crisis: If You Were Kennedy, How Would You Have Made a Decision? For some historical context, browse this website from the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum: <http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/Cuban-Missile-Crisis.aspx>.
WEEK 10 (21 OCTOBER): REPRESENTATION AND DIVERSITY
Why and when do diversity and representation in government agencies matter? How can leaders create diverse and inclusive workplaces? What are the trade-offs involved in promoting diversity and representation?
1 Theoretical underpinnings: Why does the social background of public administrators matter? In J. Dolan & D. H. Rosenbloom (Eds.), Representative bureaucracy: Classic readings and continuing controversies (pp. 3-22). New York: M. E. Sharpe.
2 Mengistu, B., & Vogel, E. (2006). Bureaucratic neutrality among competing bureaucratic values in an ethnic federalism: The case of Ethiopia. Public Administration Review, 66(2), 205-16.
3 Rosenbloom, D. H. (1983). Public administrative theory and the separation of powers. Public Administration Review, 43(3), 219-227.
CASE: Sowell, T. (2004). Affirmative action in Nigeria. In T. Sowell (Ed.), Affirmative action around the world (pp. 95-114). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
WEEK 11 (28 OCTOBER): ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGE & LEADERSHIP
What drives organizations and governments to change? Why, in some situations, do public organizations adopt changes, while in others they resist changes? How would you go about implementing action research to transform your organization?
• Chapter 18 in George & Jones (2012)
1 Dolowitz, D. P., & Marsh, D. (2000). Learning from abroad: The role of policy transfer in contemporary policy-making. Governance, 13(1), 5-23.
2 Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. The American Journal of Sociology, 83(2), 340-363.
3 DiMaggio, P., & Powell, W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147-160.
CASE: Transforming Singapore's Public Libraries
WEEK 12 (4 NOVEMBER): PANEL PRESENTATIONS
WEEK 13 (11 NOVEMBER): PANEL PRESENTATIONS & WRAPPING UP